A-Z of Health for Triathletes

ACCLIMATIZING to hot climates you need to allow 10 to 14 days to best adapt to the climate depending on the temperature change. Turn off the air conditioning otherwise you will not adapt as quickly to the change unless it is so hot you can not sleep at night, any fatigue will lessen your ability to perform in the heat.

Having the heat on in a car or using steam rooms or saunas can help but exercising in the heat is completely different.

ACNE - eating Garlic can reduce ACNE.

ACUPRESSURE is an ancient Chinese style of massage developed around 5,000 years ago and is effective at lower back pain. Pressure from fingers and thumbs in the same areas where needles are used in acupuncture. The body has 360 acupoints over the body all have a specific effect on an organ or system.

ACUPUNTURE is a form of treatment involving insertions of very thin disposable needles, which appear to stimulate vital energy stores. This therapy originally started in China over 5,000 years ago and is now practiced all around the world. Stress levels have been shown to be lowered when acupuncture has been used, also for lowering your blood pressure.

ALCOHOL - excess body fat, excess salt, Pollution, smoking are all stresses on the body.

are a source of quercetin, this can help to improve lung function and asthma symptoms. They are virtually fat free low in calories and are made of up to 88% water.

ADI risk number determined by highest dose in experimental animals with no side effects then divided by safety factor of 100. This is the amount of food additive taken daily for life without risk.

ACESULOHAMES is an artificial sweetener not absorbed by the body so therefore excreted.

ACETYLCHOLINE stimulates muscle contraction by acting as a chemical transmitter between nerves & muscles.

ACHENE is a one seeded fruit, which does not open to release seed example of this a nut.

AEROBIC SYSTEM - the slow burning of fuel by breaking down fats. Oxygen is used. This is your main supply of energy during non-activity and easy exercise.

AERODYNAMICS - On the bike aerodynamics an important significant factor in speed performance, correct position will give you optimum power. Streamlined when swimming is very important especially when you consider water is 300 times denser than air. Running close behind another running also saves energy.

AGEING is all the changes that occur, as we get older. These can include degenerative changes.

ALVEOLI are found in the lungs and allow transfer of oxygen into the blood.

ANAEROBIC SYSTEM - this energy system is required for sudden bursts of energy 5-10 seconds.

ANAEROBIC LACTATE SYSTEM - this system is used for high intensity exercise. Lactate is created and can be used in the mitochondria as a form of fuel. The process breaks down glucose.

ANTHOCYANINS are thought to strengthen the capillaries that carry oxygen to the skin is available in blackberries blue Berries and raspberries can also help improve a dull complexion.

ANTIOXIDANTS neutralize the free radicals and minimize the oxidative process. Antioxidants have the ability to helps individual cells from the effects of cigarette smoke, pollution, sunlight & stress. Research has shown that the amount of natural antioxidants produced and the average diet may not provide sufficient help against radical activity. Antioxidants devour free radicals which contribute towards ageing.

A healthy tests figure would be 40,000 skin carotenoid score while 10,000 –20,000 would be a below average figure.Antioxidants Flavonoids can be found in cocoa, which makes chocolate. Blackcurrants contain antioxidants and so do aubergines. Tomatoes contain the powerful antioxidant; cooked ones are more effective called lycopene that mops up harmful free radicals. Brightly colored vegetables like beetroot, carrots, green red and yellow pepper all contain these important antioxidants. Antioxidants are thought to help fight the harmful effects of free radicals that can eventually cause cell damage.

ASTHMA - exercise & cold air can cause asthma; in extreme cases steroids can help. Such as in the case of chronic brittle lung Asthma.
1420 people die every year due to asthma in the UK.
If a member of your family has it you are more likely to get Asthma. Often days before from acute asthma attack occurs minor symptoms give warning signs. Keeping fit helps having improved lung function.

Doctors suggest in Major Asthma attacks to use your prescribed 20-30 puffs one minute between each puff until situation improves. Although very difficult try and keep still & relaxed to use up less oxygen.

ATHLETE'S FOOT - often called ringworm but correctly called tineaz. The fungus begins between third and fourth toes as this offers the best environment of a dark, moist and warm area because it is less mobile and the dead skin cells provides all that is needed for the athletes foot fungus to survive.

AUTONOMIC NEUROPATHY is a nerve problem, which sometimes occurs with diabetes and can lead to diarrhea, impotence or low blood pressure.

BILATERAL BREATHING improves the symmetry of your swimming stroke by breathing both sides during front crawl. This is important when in open water to avoid waves and see what is going on around you.

BIPOLAR DEPRESSIVE is type of depression. Stephen Fry and Robbie Williams have also this type of manic depression. Both are very creative capable of speaking or singing to thousands of people but then are very private individuals and unable to want to do anything. Stephen Fry has also been suicidal at times.

BLOOD does the following things it pumps hemoglobin (oxygen carrying capacity) around the blood. Monitors the body’s cooling mechanism. Transports nutrients throughout your body.Blood volume of the system is usually 45% red cells in men and 40% in woman.

BLOOD PRESSURE- Taking Garlic can lower blood pressure.

BONES stop growing in our early teens or twenties; however they continue to mineralize gaining thickness until we reach our mid 30's. Weight training or running helps the bone density and delays thinning of the bones.

Exercise is not just healthy for the heart but also good for bones. During exercise bone density actually increases to a higher bone density mass for those who exercised by either weight bearing or doing repetitive movements. Calcium loss occurs with lack of physical activity. A combination of adequate calcium (+1gram per day) and exercise is the best formula for healthy strong bones.

Bones are alive and continually need calcium; it is good for healthy strong bones vitamin D and phosphorous.

Broken bones take 6-9 weeks to repair with rest and a good balanced diet.

No amount of extra milk will help with the healing process.
Humans generally stop growing by the age of 20 bone density reaches its greatest between 30-35 after which bones start to thin part of the natural age process.

BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) takes into consideration your height and weight and has the following scores. 20-25 Average and healthy, 25-30 considered overweight. 30+ very overweight. This scale is not relevant to children the elderly or pregnant women. For more detailed information log onto www.nhsdirect.com

BRONCHITIS is a bacterial infection or a viral infection symptoms painful cough.

CALDARIUM is an aromatic steam room to relax in; extra benefit is gained if you spend some of the time breathing in slowly.

CALCIUM can be obtained from the following low fat skimmed milk, soymilk tofu cottage cheese hard cheese even mozzarella cheese choose the low fat types and yoghurt.Broccoli and spinach also contain small amounts of calcium. But it is difficult to absorb. Excess calcium is excreted so you will not build up calcium deposits.

CARBO-LOADING will make sure your energy stores are full to capacity for your race. Start 4 days before to have the most muscle glycogen available for much better endurance. This form of loading has shown much better results than carbo depletion then loading.

CARDIO VASCULAR FITNESS results in a healthy heart. The two go together.

CATARRH - removing dairy products from your diet until catarrh has gone can reduce catarrh. Garlic helps to cleanse system and clearing congested tissue. Reducing refined sugar strengthens immune system and also helps.

CELLULITE can be seen on men and women.

CHEWING FOOD is a vital act to break food up into smaller manageable pieces before it enters the stomach. This action gives warning that food is on its way to your stomach.

CHLORINE is used to disinfect water, which is easily available, and cheap to buy is the most commonly used, as it is safe to use for swimming pools.

CHOLESTEROL - fatty molecule in excess is associated with coronary heart disease. Taking over the counter drug called statins or fresh garlic or a garlic capsule to avoid the risk of garlic breath. A tablet called Statin available over the counter claims to be able to reduce the levels of bad types of cholesterol, which should reduce the risk of heart disease and strokes. High cholesterol can make you anxious and depressed.Crab apples are high in fiber which can reduce cholesterol avoid the apples pips however as they contain toxic cyanide compounds.

CIRCULATION can be improved by internally taking the herbs called dandelion, hawthorn and horse chestnut they also help inflammation and are diuretic. Externally lightly rubbing vegetable based oil with chamomile close to the area can also relieve the pain.

COLDS - a person who has a virus can leave it on any surface. When the infected person coughs and puts their own hand over their mouth then touches something, this can then be caught when you touch the same area. The virus can survive on a moist cool glass for days providing it is out of direct sunlight because ultra violet light from sunshine destroys them.

A used damp handkerchief can still be infected days after useBrass that is dry and has zinc compounds might be germ free in 30 minutes.

Coins copper alloy also germ free. Are not good surfaces to keep germs alive? The most common way to catch a cold is to touch something infected then put your hand in your mouth or touch your face.

COLLAGEN - research has shown that liquid collagen supplements can help naturally rebuild damaged cartilage. Fresh fruits, Fish and wholegrain make collagen required for our skin strength and structure.

CONFIDENCE (self confidence) can be improved, we were not born with low self-confidence. Imagine how good you will feel if you felt full of confidence in control clear headed not nervous. Talking to yourself in your head to start with then in front of a mirror when alone and no one can hear you. Talk about the positives imagine, you are speaking to a child best friend or pet this will help you speak to them in a positive tone of voice. Recall all the things that you have done well and are good at. Each and every time things go well say well done to you, recording all the good things build confidence.

CONSTIPATION - men are less concerned about going to a public toilet than women, that is why it is thought that constipation is more common in women. If you ignore the sensation to go to the toilet then the Colon becomes lazy.
Being dehydrated can lead to constipation, which can increase the likelihood of bowel cancer. Constipation can be reduced by having plenty of fresh fruit whole food (fibre) and water.
Constipation can be for a number of reasons from improper diet,Lack of exercise, nervous tension, and regular dehydration.

CORE TRAINING can involve static exercises, a Swiss ball or pump pad (which you place under back and increase core pressure then exercise watching a pressure gauge to make sure you are not arching your back and pressure drops or pushing back into ground and not using your core muscles.) Core training improves posture more powerful movements by joining arms and legs better by a stronger middle section.

Improved core strength and fitness allow for more dynamic strength and power. Can also improve injury prevention by being tougher and more balanced and better total fitness. This allows all muscles to work together rather than just isolated ones giving you better coordination between abdomen, hips, lower back and pelvis. The significant benefits of core training follow through to whatever you are involved in, because the area around your trunk and pelvis is where your centre of gravity is located. Anyone with lower back pain poor posture can benefit from core stability.

CRAVINGS - food cravings occur for many reasons often due to poor diet regularly having quick fix simple sugars causing peaks and troughs of sugar in your blood stream.

DESIRE helps you put action into what your dreams are.

DETOX BATH - Homemade detox bath.
2 tablespoons of sea salt, 1 tablespoon of sweet almond oil,2 drops of lemon oil, 2 drops of peppermint oil.Rub the mixture in to your skin while in the bath to flush out toxins.
Soak in the bath for 20 minutes, optimum water temperature of 37 degrees C. Only detox one or twice a week

CORTISOL - hormone in the blood will raise blood pressure heart rate and cholesterol levels.

DIABETES is a condition that if properly controlled or ignored can lead to blindness, kidney disease and strokes for more information log onto www.diabetes.org.ukTaste buds in humans are most sensitive according to Tesco taste panel between 30 and 50 years of age.

DIARRHOEA - when traveling abroad the following can help you avoid or reducing the chances of an upset stomach.

Avoid unpasteurised dairy products i.e. Cheese cream and milk. Do not have ice because it is probably made from local water. Also refrain from eating from places that do not have chilled storage or street vendors. The local may have built up a resistance to local germs. Do not eat uncooked foods including salads these may be washed in local water, which could be contaminated. Fruits and vegetables can also be washed in local water peel them first before eating.

Do not eat uncooked shellfish including oysters.

Cleanliness- washing your hands before and after eating. Washing hands with soap after going to the toilet. Only brush your teeth with bottled water.

Food- most foods left at room temperature can breed germs. Eating food at buffets as soon as it is available can reduce the risk. Cross contamination can also increase this risk Food that has not been reheated and it very hot and has been cooked properly is generally safer.

Water- Only drink boiled or bottled water and make sure that the seal is intake and has not been refilled with local untreated water.

If you do end up having diarrhea avoid getting dehydrated by increasing your fluid intake. A home made electrolyte drink can be made by mixing 6 level teaspoons of sugar and one level teaspoon of salt into one litre of bottled mineral water or boiled water. Seek medical advice if diarrhea continues for more than three days.

DISOMANIA is fluid excess which is has far higher risks to health than dehydration.

EARWAX is a mixture of cerumen, hair fragments and skin cells, which are helpful for catching. Small particles of dust stopping bacteria, bugs and fungi. Cerumen is either dry which is crusty or greyish in colour or the wet type light brownish in colour the wet is more genetically dominant. Earwax can be dark brown or black if the ear is not cleaned regularly. Stress can alter the mix and colour of your earwax. Earwax has been used as a lip balm.

DREAMS are your aims aspirations and hopes. Some may be realistic short term or long term. Whatever they are they are if you remind yourself by writing them down so you can see them this will help you keep focused. Message on your phone computer on your fridge in your diary continual reminders reinforce your dreams.

EFA'S which help raise skin moisture levels are found in salmon.

EMU OIL famed by marathoner runner Paula Radcliffe. The manufacturers claim it has injury soothing properties. Ironmate has tried it and it did work!

ENERGY LEVELS - my energy levels go up and down during training why is this happening? This can be caused by a number of things. Uneven pace due to swimming cycling and running against resistance wind or hills. Early season racing when you have not trained specifically at a high constant tempo.

Imagine you are a fire then when you add paper or wood it burns at different levels. If you have had a high Gi index drink of food then the quick sugar rush will be soon used up. The longer you train after 15 minutes then your energy levels even out. Try and avoid sugary foods or sports drinks with too much sugar. These will give you a quick fix then make you feel weak or sluggish. Mood swings are often a sign of up & down energy levels.

Much better to have a carbohydrate food like a banana pasta or rice about 45 minutes before you start training. For a training session lasting longer than 25 minutes sip any 6% carbohydrate sports drink and if you often sweat consider taking an electrolyte drink.

ENTHUSIASM is your passion and energy to help you be motivated to progress forward even when things go not go to plan.

ERGOLYTICS – these are detrimental to your health and include the following.

Alcohol, Excess body fat, excess salt, Pollution, Smoking and Stress.

EVAPORATION of sweat from the skin provides the most effective way to dissipate excess heat. Large amounts of fluid can be lost this way, which often cannot be replaced. It is not uncommon to lose 2.5 liters of fluid per hour while the body is only able to absorb up to 2.0 liters an hour the rest is absorbed after exercise has stopped.

EXERCISE at least two times a week for 20 minutes can help reduce blood pressure burns up calories reduce weight, lowers cholesterol and prevents blood clotting.

EXPERIENCE is your best coach & teacher; it will give you most answers but not all the time. If you do not remember and adapt then the lesson is not learnt. Don't expect what happened in the past to happen again be prepared for something different to happen. Mentally prepare setbacks so when something goes wrong you will be able to confront and overcome it with less stress.
Concentrate on the now, future and not the past. After time you can use your own knowledge to be more effective often saving time. Everyone is individual in the way experiences happen and how we deal with them. Some athletes get injured and research for knowledge to improve others sulk or give up easily. Experience helps you overcome problems and make you stronger and wiser next time.

EYE - human eyeball diameter when born 0.67-0.7inches puberty 0.79-0.83-adult 0.95in

FAECES are made of 75% water and 25% bacteria the rest is mainly fiber. Unfermented fiber holds a lot of water. In the UK daily faecal weights can be 250- 300 grams.

FARMERS MARKET means that the fresh farm items sold are produced themselves and not purchased to sell on. A true Farmers market has a certification to prove grown and sold by same organization.

FAT is stored in the human body as fuel to enable the slow releasing of energy. The average male has 17–25% body fat and the average female 23–33% while the best male marathoners have 6–13% and the females 14–20%. Figures for elite athletes can be much lower but the immune system can be weakened considerably. You can train your body over many years to be effective to use stored fats at high intensities. The more efficient you are the more you can improve using fats. Athletes who are new to sport or have not trained for many months use carbohydrate during high intensity.

FATIGUE - this can be caused by dehydration and a reduction in glycogen levels. Starting a session or competition already tired will result in fatigue coming on earlier. Poor pace judgment going off too fast trying to stay with an athlete who is stronger on the hills can cause earlier fatigue. Motivation pre mental mindset and mood all can effect how you cope with fatigue. If you are up for the challenge then you can be better to cope with fatigue while having a negative attitude prior to the start can make you back off a little when fatigue happens. Your individual nutritional needs may differ during the year depending on accumulated fitness levels.

FEMALES have approximately 90% total bone mass at the age of 17, 95% by the age of 20 and 99% by the age of 26.

FLEXIBILITY is the total ability to understand your aspiration goals desire dreams enthusiasm and motivation keeping them all in check staying focused and being creative and imaginative to work around daily time constraints setbacks to keep going. Flexibility is helped by patience and real life reality. To continually monitor progress and understand what helps you progress what no longer makes changes occur.

FLU - if you have the Flu you should stay in bed, struggling to work can increase the time it takes to clear two or tree times.Taking Cold or Flu medicines can help with the flu symptoms.Those at risk are the over 65 and the young. It is a serious viral infectious disease; symptoms can be Aching limbs, Dry Cough, High Temperature, Runny Nose, Shivering, and Sore throat and can last for many weeks.

There are hundreds of types of virus, which are constantly changing. Doctors recommend Flu jab to Asthma sufferers, Diabetes patients, heart disease sufferers those over 65 and the young, also those with respiratory disease or low immunity system due to disease or because of current treatment. No reported problems have been reported in giving the vaccine to pregnant women.

The flu vaccine is given ready for the winter from September to November. The Flu jab is injected which has Non-Live Virus parts, which latch onto a matching proteins in the body. The body's reaction is to produce antibodies that help destroy the virus and is ready when you are exposed to a similar virus in the future. Some patients may experience very mild like symptoms up to 48 Hours after immunization as your body respond to the injection. Flu jab has on average a 70% effective rate. If you have a serious allergy to hen's eggs then you should not get vaccinated always ask your doctor if you have any doubts. The reason that high-risk people need to have flu jab to avoid a bout of flu is because it can cause bronchitis or pneumonia, which could then result in hospital treatment. You are generally protected for about 12 months by having a flu vaccine because the virus constantly mutates to a new strain.

In the UK if you are over 65 the vaccination is FREE.

FLUID RESERVE is the amount of fluid a human has estimated at about two liters.

FOCUSED if you remember that the pain will stop when you finish this can help staying focused. Recall all the hard sessions that you have completed in training, the conditions either cold wet windy hot and hilly. Think about breathing your form even counting or thinking of song can help you keep a good repetitive movement. Listening to Music can help. Either before then it is still clear in your memory or during training can keep you motivated and help improve staying focused.

FOOD FUELS – during participating in aerobic exercise a combination of the following fuels are use. Carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

FOOD INTOLERANCE - basically it is your body being hypersensitive and can react with the following symptoms. Feeling bloated irritable bowel and migraine. Eating the same type of foods daily or regularly so the body is unable to process it. One of the reasons it is thought that more people now suffer from food intolerance is because years ago our diet was seasonal now due to refrigeration, freezers and planes we can almost eat anything at any time of the year so there is not the cycle of readily available foods that we once dined on.By keeping a record of what you eat and monitoring your moods energy levels in the 24-48 hours afterwards and what reactions you will be able to see personally how certain foods affect you.Foods that cause you a reaction are called trigger foods. If you avoid these foods expect to feel better in 14-21 days. By refraining from such foods you may be able to incorporate them again in small portions after 3 months.

FREE RADICALS damage is caused by the following – Environmental pollution – Radiation-Ultraviolet light from the sun - Smoking and Stress. Free radicals make us age more quickly. Tomatoes especially tinned help fight free radical damage.

FUNGI - there are believed to be over 600,000 varieties of fungi in the world, many are among the most desirable and sought after food such as mushroom and truffles.

GLUE EAR in the young children can benefit from a reduced amount of dairy products in their diets.

GLUCOSAMINE available over the counter without a prescription. This molecule is in the human cartilage and as we get older it degenerates. Taking this supplement can keep the cartridge healthier.

GLYCOGEN depletion is a result of the following and will lead to poor performance. Training hard on consecutive days, poor diet including inadequate delayed replacement after exercise or training in the morning without breakfast because you have not consumed any calories for over 6 hours and blood sugar levels are low.

GOALS are confirmation with help of a written strategy to attaining your desired end outcome and result.

HAPPINESS is on your ability to deal with past experience or learn by other people’s problems. Current feelings are dependent on many things for example if you drop and break a glass you could feel disappointment frustration or depression and tears. Some people carry on forgets it and move on.How you respond internally mentally depends on the past and current feelings.

Music food smells weather all have had made a blue print on our lives, a stimulus that is repeated our mood can change from the previous time to more happiness or more stress.

HEALTHY - fear grief stress can all damage your health.They can all increase the risk of heart disease. Certain types of stress can increase the hormone called adrenaline by up to 30 times.

HIATUS HERNIA (part of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm)

HOMEOSTASIS is the body’s self-regulatory system vital for the body organs and tissues to function efficiently. When the body over heats it sweats when it is cold it shakes to warm up. Also regulation of blood pressure and correct levels of sugar in the blood stream.

HOSTILITY - a study showed that hostile women tend to have hardened arteries. Hostility raises adrenaline levels increases cholesterol, which creates anxietyDepression can make your blood stickier increasing the risk of clots occurring. Positive happy people have reduced levels of the inflammatory stress hormone called cortisol.

HUMAN BODY - 80% of blood is made up by water while muscles are made up of about 70%. Water content of the he brain is about 85%.

HUMAN GENES - 40 % of your genes are the same as a Banana99 % of our Genes are the same as a chimpanzee.

HUNGER pains can be a result of eating quickly and not convincing yourself you have eaten enough earlier, eating quick fix foods high in sugar fats, salts and low in nutrients. Rather then potatoes you eat crisps or chips. Apple pie not apples, carrot cake not carrots. Once you get into a habit of eating quick fix fast releasing foods it is difficult to break out of this habit.

HYPERBARIC chambers are float tanks or spas. Used before or after exercise to aid recovery.

HYPONATREMIA is low blood sodium levels often caused by just drinking plain water during and after exercise or simply drinking too much and flushing away important minerals when urinating.

GLYCAEMIC INDEX is a measure of the speed that the food breaks down to energy in the body. Although low GI foods are slow releasing and keep you satisfied until your next meal sometime you need quick fast releasing energy. Experts suggest one low GI food with every meal each day.
HABITS are hard to break. Belief emotion desire and motivation can change existing habits.

HAMMAN - is a Middle Eastern or Turkish communal bathhouse.

HEALTHY - fear grief stress can all damage your health.They can all increase the risk of heart disease. Certain types of stress can increase the hormone called adrenaline by up to 10 times.

HYDRATION is important for good health. Amounts vary for each individual depending on size sweat rates and diet. A small person who has a sedentary job in an air conditioned office eating lots of fruit and vegetables may not need to drink as much water compared to a man who has a physical job outside in the heat.

HYDRO POOL - high-pressure jets of air blow bubbles thru the water.

HYPONATREMIA is low blood sodium levels often caused by just drinking plain water during and after exercise or simply drinking too much and flushing away important minerals when urinating.

IMAGE CONSULTANT – a specialist advisor who will advise you to make more eye contact amongst other things.

LACTOSE - lacking the enzyme called lactase used to digest milk causes LACTOSE intolerant. Some lactase lacking people who are unable to digest milk are ok and able to digest hard cheese yoghurt small amounts of milk mixed with food can sometimes be tolerated.

LIFE - a transplant method that could create life without men. Human sperm cells have been grown from bone marrow by scientists. Sterile men from low sperm count especially those who have had chemotherapy from cancer treatment. An artificial sperm has been created in a laboratory. From stem cells, which are blank and have the ability to change into any other type of cell drawn from mouse embryos?

LIFE STRATEGIST – an expert who aim to help you reduce worrying.

LIVER stores 142-200 grams of glycogen.

JOULE is the unit of work, heat, energy done either by force, distance traveled or an electric current of 1 amp flowing through a resistance. The joule of work for one second is equal to one watt of power, also measured as a calorie.

KING CYCLE is a brand of stationary bike used in a laboratory for experiments to measure power out put in conjunction with a heart rate monitor. This can monitor various resistances in relation to workload. Maximum and thresholds tests can be done.

LACTIC ACID is produced when you exercise but can be re-synthesized or used by the body as fuel. Lacking the enzyme called lactase used to digest milk causes LACTOSE intolerant. Some lactase lacking people who are unable to digest milk are ok and able to digest hard cheese yoghurt small amounts of milk mixed with food can sometimes be tolerated.

LEPTIN is a hormone and acts as an appetite suppressant released while asleep, so this would explain why we eat more with less sleep because not as much Lepton is in the system. Leptin plays an important role in regulating human metabolism and lets us know when we have had too much food. Research has found that when weight is lost our levels fall making it harder to burn off calories so it is then easier for weight to be put on.

LIFE STRATEGIST – An expert whose aim is to help you reduce worrying.

LDL CHOLESTEROL – Low-density lipoprotein thought to be harmful in the blood.

MACULAR DEGENERATION (MD) age related (MD) could lead to blindness in old age. Increasing your foods rich in vitamin E, C Beta carotene and zinc reduced the risk according to the medical centre in Rotterdam.

MASSAGE - stimulates the circulation, which helps the removal of waste products and improving the flow of oxygen to the muscles and smoothes tight muscles. The Chinese has practiced it as long ago as 2,000 years BC.

MAGNESIUM - can be obtained form watercress a leafy green salad. It is also high in vitamin C.

MALARIA occurs when an infected mosquito bites and passes a parasite into the blood this then travels to the liver with the purpose of infecting the victim’s red blood cells. Symptoms include flu like symptoms of chills, coughing; diarrhea often with abdominal pain, fever with high temperatures, headaches, muscular aching, weakness, vomiting and remember it only takes one bite.

MEDICINE can be taken either in capsule, cream, eye drops, injection, and liquid by mouth, lotion, patch or most commonly Tablet form. Certain medicines can curdle if stored at room temperatures. Once opened always keep them chilled unless the label says otherwise. Do not drink from the medicine bottle, as this is unhygienic. Always shake the bottle even if used early that day otherwise you will not get the correct dose each time.

MENTAL FATIGUE occurs under stress, dehydration and low energy levels. Prevention- Mentally prepare for every eventually and what you would do. This will appear less stressful when it happens. Maintain good nutrition to keep your blood sugars levels constant. Include carbohydrate/protein during and after exercise to spare protein breakdown and damage. Often a sign of low energy levels is negative mood swings.

MENTAL HEALTH organization claims that exercise is effective as a natural anti-depressant for mild or moderate symptoms. For more info log onto www.mentalhealth.org.uk

MIGRAINE can be caused by many things and last between 4-72 hours from moderate to severe symptoms. Factors that can trigger symptoms are Italian Wine, Milk, and Chocolate, M G additives. Everyone is different and sometimes food allergies do not trigger a migraine but an everyday food product.

According to one expert delaying taking pain killers is a mistake because once a migraine occurs digestion almost stops so not allowing pain killers to be absorbed so this can be a reason for being or feeling sick. If this happens taking a prescribed pain killer under the tongue to get into the blood system is your best option. Also which a shut down of the digestive system then eventually starting up again this can result into Irritable Bowel syndrome.

Women taking the contraceptive pill while having a migraine have caused bad side effects, High blood pressure, smoking and high cholesterol levels are silent killers and give no warning while migraines although very disturbing to the patient are generally less of a health risk. Some patients experience a warning of flashing lights in one or both eyes. Codeine & Paracetomol taking for more than 36 hours can create a headache with Migraine sufferer, while Ibuprofen has not been shown to cause the same problem.

MILK – Some vitamins in milk slowly disappear when exposed to light. But vitamins in cartons stay there as long as the milk does.

MOOD SWINGS and be avoided in some cases by eating carbohydrates as they are slow releasing, satisfy you for longer and make you happier by avoiding peaks and troughs in energy levels.

MOTIVATION by visualizing how pleased you will feel reaching short and long term goals this will keep you on track and motivated. Keeping a diary with aims will help keep going when things are not going to plan?

How many miles how much time timed sessions etc all keep you focused. Have tick boxes good nutrition training targets rest days sleep were able to ride run or swim easy instead of hard keep you in the zone of fulfillment. This should only take 15 seconds a week monitor how each week the number of yes tick boxes is achieved.

MRSA is a super bug found in hospitals. A company-making sliver lined nightwear claim that the added 2-3g of sliver into the material suffocates the germs and then stops them from mutating. Sliver has long been known for its antibacterial properties, that is why it can be found in dressings and plasters.

MUSCLE TISSUE can store up to 142-284 grams of glycogen.

MYCO is the Greek word for Fungi.

NATURAL DAYLIGHT sunlight is your important ally it will improve your feel good brain activity other alternatives are sad lights. Exercise helps to pump oxygen rich blood around the body and brain.

NORADRENALINE the adrenal gland hormone also produced by some nerves, which causes most blood vessels to constrict and also stimulates the heart.

NOROVIRUS is a stomach bug. It takes up to 48 hours to develop symptoms, which include diarrhea, fever, nausea, stomach cramps or pains, a sudden occurrence of vomiting. It affects mainly the young and elderly.

OBESITY can be partly caused by the thirst sensation being confused for hunger. During the breakdown of fat water becomes available so the body soon recognizes that fat in diet can supply water that is needed.

ORGANIC FOODS generally contain higher levels of antioxidants calcium iron magnesium vitamin Organic foods do not contain additives. Organic foods cannot be labeled organic if they have been genetically modified.

Organic farms are inspected at least every 12 months. Organic cattle produce organic milk because they feed on open pastures strict animal welfare and not given antibiotics but instead natural remedies. The soil association has also approved their organic farming practices.

OSTEOPOROSIS can be detected early by a blood test and DXA scan that measures bone density. It is claimed that if detected early some treatments can halt the disease getting worse. Those at risk are women past menopause sufferers from anorexia smokers or parents who were smokers.

OVERTRAINING - by continually training with no adequate rest and recovery your body is tired and will not adapt. You will feel more tired than normal. Your perception of effort will be harder for less effort and rate of recovery slower. Resting heart rate can also higher than normal, experts suggest more than 10% higher than take a day off and let your body recover.
OZONE BATH - a thermal tub of warm water with jets that provide streams of ozonized bubbles for relaxation and stimulation.

PAINKILLERS include Fenoprofen, Ibuprofen, ketoprofen, Naproxen, and aspirin are not very good for digestion. They can cause intestinal bleeding even in small amounts such as a single aspirin on an empty stomach can cause small amounts of bleeding. It s likely that taking painkillers long term will magnify the problems.

PATIENCE is important so you can stay focused knowing that the best things in life are waiting for. The longer the struggle and journey to get to your destination the better the satisfaction and reward. Staying the distance in the knowledge that only short-term aspirations are achieved straight away.

PERCEPTION OF EFFORT (PE) - using your own scale 1-10 or 1-20 one being easiest and 10/20 being very hard you can gauge how your training and recovery is. Only using a heart rate monitor for example can be misleading if you do a one mile hard run you could be over trained and your heart rate may not be as high yet the heart rate was lower than previously and the effort seemed as high as normal.

PERIOD 3 gene is significantly longer in people in people get up early.

PERFORMANCE can decrease by more than 20% if you lose two percent of your body weight in sweat.

PERSERVANCE is the ability to keep going when distractions get in the way your performance has reached a plateau. Not necessarily single-mindedness but a tenacious strength of character helps you towards your finish line or goal.

POLLEN ALLERGY - vitamin C and royal jelly have helped pollen sufferers.

POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGIST is a specialist who teaches you the benefits of being optimistic.

PROPRIOCEPTORS are the nerve endings within muscle & joints that tell the central nervous system of movement.

PNEUMONIA is an infection because of inhaled bacterium fungus or virus that causes fluid or pus in the alveoli in the lungs Symptoms include chest pains flu symptoms rapid breathing or wheezing.

PULMONARY arteries carry blood from the heart to the lungs.

REALITY helps you understand what is realistic. What progressive workouts you need to help you on the way towards achieving your ambitions. This can be a small stepping-stone each day week month year to get to where you want to go or be.

REFLOXOGY is a type of massage on the feet to treat ailments and restore all body functions.

RESOLUTIONS - "I will go to the gym" This goal often fails because it has no specific target. Be more precise i.e. When, what time, how many times per week, what days if missed plan an alternative time, deadline date, ask yourself why you want to do it, what you hope to achieve.

To succeed you will sometimes need to try again and be more determined to achieve after an earlier failure. Tell others of your ambitions, this will give you added commitment they could ask you. Reward yourself with little treats for reaching short-term goals.

RIBOFLAVIN is a vitamin converting the food we eat into energy, this can be obtained from milk. The more exercise the more you need this vitamin. Non-dairy eaters can be lacking low riboflavin in their diet.

SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER [SAD] we need daylight sunlight and warmth as winter approaches these all decrease reducing our moods making some people depressed and sad more than others. Once the longer brighter warmer days return you will feel much better. Alcohol caffeine and nicotine lowers serotonin needed for preventing this condition. It is a type of depression.

Natural daylight & sunlight is your important ally it will improve your well being mood feelings with good brain activity. Other alternatives are electric sad lights. Exercise helps to pump oxygen rich blood around the body and brain, which also helps.

SIDE EFFECTS from taking medicine can be mild or uncomfortable such as irritation or a nuisance bad enough to affect everyday activities or severe to be admitted to hospital to life threatening and even cause death. Medicines are designed to treat or prevent illness and relieve symptoms.

Side effects do not always occur to everyone taking medicine some people experience side effects straight away while others could take the treatment for many years without any ill effects. Side effects have also been known to occur when the patient stops taking a medicine. Some side effects occur after a person has been taking it for a long period of time.

Some side effects are temporary others are long lasting. Check the details for a list of side effects. If concerned always consult your doctor or who prescribed them. You can even report your concerns to the Medicines and Healthcare regulatory Agency London SW8 5BR.

SKIN tone seems to improve when correct hydration is maintained.

SLEEP - most people can wake up to 5 times each night. Looking at an LED clock that emits light can wake you up, so either turn it facing the wall or out of sight and wait for the alarm to wake you up. Disturbed sleep can cause higher levels of stress the following day.

SMOKING - how to give up smoking? This is better achieved by having a good reason; someone you know has died from lung cancer, to improve the quality of your health and also to save money.

Everyone has an at least one reason don't delay do it today. Reward yourself when you are successful like a weekend break or a more expensive holiday. As you give up notice how your taste and smell returns and how much better you start to feel. You should feel less breathless.

More people are successful in giving up at any day during the year than waiting for January 1st and a new year's resolution. Giving up smoking is the single most important thing you can do for your health.

The two most common types of medication to help are Nicotine replacement therapy or NRT or a drug called Bupropion also known as Zyban. Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) works by still giving you the nicotine, which is addictive part of the cigarette like cocaine and heroin. It is the cigarette that contains over 4,200 chemicals which are known to cause caner and other diseases. The main types of NRT treatment vary from Chewing Gum, Lozenges, Microtab, a patch you stick on to your skin a nasal spray or an inhalator, which is a white stick that gives you a puff of nicotine.

Taking Zyban is claimed to be a non-nicotine drug and helps you to overcome the withdrawal symptoms when you reduce or give up. One tablet a day is recommended for 7 days then two a day eight hours apart for 6-8 weeks, a word of caution Zyban is not suitable for everyone so consult your doctor.

It will not be easy and you may well experience the following symptoms like cravings, headaches, irritability and even sleep disturbance but your health is priceless. There are many local groups to help you give up smoking. They have trained stop smoking advisors and other people who also want to stop. They will be happy to help and give you support and advice about quitting smoking.

SOIL ASSOCATION - this is the UK organization for organic products. For example meat that is sold with the soil association kite mark has spent most of its life in a natural habitat without routine antibiotics, chickens certified with the soil association can be free roaming ground pecking and well looked after.

SNORING - 40% of UK adults snore.

STINGING NETTLES sting contain acid by passing a dock leaf over the area alkali is released to neutralize the painful itchy feeling. Dock leaves often can be found growing close to stinging nettles.

STRESS affects every one of us during our lives. This can be in the form of emotional physical and psychological. Stress is coped by the body with the flight or flight hormone adrenalin, cortisol and noradrenaline, which are designed to speed up our hearts and increase our blood pressure.

During times of stress reducing blood to the stomach and diverting it to the muscles for sudden bursts of energy, sweating more. Reducing blood to the skin surface as a protection mechanism making a stressed person look pale in colour. Stress can make you very alert and cope with physical and mental tasks more easily but long-term stress can be harmful to your well-being and health.

Stress Signs- Biting your finger nails-Headaches-Chest Pains-Dizzy Feelings-Feeling irritable-Low self-esteem, bladder or bowel problems. Drinking more alcohol or smoking more can also be a sign of stress. Refraining or avoiding your normal habits.

There are numerous reasons that can start stress including bereavement trying to multi task at work, being conscientious, the fear of losing your employment, family conflict, money problems including debt fatigue and low energy levels can heighten your fears.

Simple stress beaters to alleviate stress include the following. Anxiety before a competition is perfectly normal it is the body’s way of getting you ready to compete uses this ability for improved performance. Breathing slowly taking long deep breaths thinking just about breathing can lower your pulse rate. Delegate tasks you may actually find that someone can do a good job.

Caffeine can increase stress so during these times w hen you want to reduce anxiety avoid caffeine drinks like coffee and tea but keep hydrated by replacing with non-caffeine drinks such as chamomile tea or natural mineral water. Chamomile tea is especially good as it has mild sedative qualities and can help with sleeplessness and relieve headaches and tension.

Diet- eating a good balanced nutritional diet, eating regularly snacks to keep your energy levels more constant can help. Dizzy feelings can also be attributed to stress slow deep breathing can help. Exercise is a great stress buster because endorphins are produced which may you feel happy and exercise reduces the amount of adrenalin in your body lowering stress.

Hydration- Drink 8 pints of water a day. Avoid lots of caffeine drinks including coffee and tea, which can make you dehydrated.

Notes- Make a list of things that need doing and number them Power naps even 20 minutes can revive and refresh you and reduce stress levels at the same time. Relaxation techniques can be as simple as going for a slow 10-15 minute walk without your mobile phone. Find a quiet place close your eyes and think of a nice environment to be in. Tighten then relax a muscle starting from your toes feet legs torso chest hands arms neck and head.

Hold tension for 5-10 seconds then relax for 10-15 seconds remembering to breathe slowly. If this is not possible just grip your hands tightly 5-10 seconds then relax and shake out your hands repeat 2-4 times. Dropping your arms by your side and shaking them can relieve tight muscles in your neck back and shoulders.

Share your concerns with a person you can trust, a problem shared is a problem halved. .Sleep is also very important to help you recover and be ready to cope better the next day. Aim to be relaxed as possible in the hour before going to sleep avoid working on a computer with bright lights as this can make you wake up before you are ready to go to sleep.

Have a note pad by the side of the bed if you think of something you can write it down and then quickly fall back to sleep because you can forget about it until the morning. Visualization can be closing your eyes and thinking of your favorite place, food, relaxing music. This has the effect of temporarily removing you from your current surroundings.

Work-Life balance- Try and get a good balance not working non-stop all day with no time for relaxing. Contact your doctor if you need to seek professional or medical advice about stress, other specialists includes aroma therapist, counselor or homoeopath to help you relax better and reduce stress levels. Stress raises blood pressure. Taking Magnesium is very good for reducing stress. Evian water has approx 24mg per litre of magnesium.

STYE is a pimple in your eyelid. This caused by an infected follicle where an eyelash grows. Never squeeze it as this will spread the infection, by applying a warm compress 10-15 minutes 3-4 times a day will relieve the symptoms.

SUN BATHING - SPF Factor is the Sun Protection Factor. The SPF OF 10 means that you can be in the sun for ten times the time before it takes to burn. Any change in colour (tanning) or burning causes skin damage. The Sun ages your skin.

There are two types of rays UVB AND UVAUVA penetrates skin causing wrinkles and aging and UVB burns the skin.10 Minutes in the sun 3 times a week can provide enough Vitamin D for a week. The sun may not be as strong as in the Tropics but the level of radiation is the same. Skin cancer has doubled in the UK in last 10 years.

SUNSHINE SAFETY - the best way to enjoy the sunshine is follow the following precautions. Use a high protection sunscreen SPF 20 is not as strong as SPF 40.Always keep in the shade where possible and do not fall asleep in a shaded area because when the sun moves you could end up waking up because you are burnt.

The sun is strongest between 10-3pm although if any clouds disappear the sunrays can be stronger at other times. Apply sun block every hour and after swimming. Wear a hat to protect your head and ears a broad-brimmed hat is better than a front peak as it protects the back of the neck. Wear sunglasses with an EPF 10+ = 100% UV blockage.

SUPPLEMENTS - the UK spent £110 million on fish oil supplements IN 2004.If you do not train smart and regularly tending to skip more workouts no matter what supplements you take you will not improve on diet alone.

TASTE BUDS in humans are most sensitive according to Tesco when we are between 30-50 years of age. This tends to be the age that they pick people to taste their foods, woman tends to pass the test to qualify for this particular job.

TEPIDARIUM - is a warm relaxing room often to the sound of natural sounds like the sea the wind or wild birds.

TESTOSTERONE - is a naturally produced growth hormone.

THALASSOTHERAPY - is the use of seawater and marine products including seaweed to restore the balance of the body.

THALLIUM is a colorless, odorless, tasteless but deadly poison than can kill a human in 8-10 hours. It is claimed to have been used by assassins around the world. It kills by causing internal gastroenteritis and hemorrhaging Survivors experience kidney damage and hair loss, taking larger amounts will cause cardiac arrest and respiratory failure and eventually lead to death.

THEOBROMINE is found in cocoa and is more effective at stopping persistent coughs than codeine. Also theobromine has no side effects such as drowsiness. Theobromine is used in cough mixture and is helpful against coughs.

THEOPHYLLINE found in chocolate is thought to stop the series of events that cause heart inflammation.

THERMOREGULATION is the system that regulates the body’s temperature.

TIME OUT - taking time off will make you feel rejuvenated excited determined and remove any monotony and feeling rusty. Finding a happy medium to maintaining your technical and fitness skills and good mental motivation and rest is the key to being successful. Take mini time out breaks can do wonders.

TITANIUM is a grey metal stronger and lighter than Steel. Considered to be one of the best materials for making racing bike frames. Difficult to produce a frame, titanium will not rust. Well-respected brand called Litespeed available through UK distributors American Bike Group. www.litespeed.com Ironmate Mark has been using the same frame for 14 years and has successfully completed 15 Ironman distance triathlons on his trusty steed.

VO2 Max – The volume measured with Oxygen consumed during maximum effort. This is important because stored fuels are needed when exercising. Measurements have been recorded from top International athletes as high as 91 % to 35% for sedentary people.

TOXINS - you can reduce toxins in your blood by having a quick burst of cold water at the end of a warm shower. This has the effect of reducing the circulation then increasing it flushing away waste products.

TRAINING – the repeated training of the body and mind demanding enough to improve performance specific to the targeted competition or outcome. Training does not improve performance recovery will improve; Training makes you tired recovery makes you better and improves strength/speed/endurance. It is not how much you do but how much you improve that makes you go quicker.

ULTRAVIOLET radiation, just beyond violet end of the visible spectrum.

UNUSUAL If you notice symptoms or something different with your body that lasts more than two weeks get an experts advice. A lump or swelling could be a caner growth. There is usually a reason for a change in size or why something functions differently.

VARICOSE VEINS affect both men and women. They can often be age related so the older you are the more likely you may get them. When a valve in a vein does not function properly blood pools in this area when it should be carried back to the heart. There are different types of varicose veins.

Reticular a network of small group of veins. Very fine thread like called telangiectasia or trunk like the largest visible type. All types need to be treated otherwise it can cause eczema skin problems or ulcers. Stockings also encourage the flow of blood towards the heart. Compression stockings may relieve the swelling and aching legs but this does not stop them from getting worse or developing the best form of treatment is to have them removed by surgery. Standing all day common with hair dressers, constipation, heredity, obesity, pregnancy or water retention can cause varicose veins. Rutin found in buckwheat helps by building up the walls of the veins.

Veins carry blood back to the heart is all parts of the body. Varicose veins are as a result of faulty valves that stop flowing correctly through the veins. Blood builds up where the walls are weak causing it to swell in this area. Varicose veins appear near the surface of the skin as bumpy uneven veins, and are purple or bluer in colour.

Varicose veins are seen in the calf area and or thigh. There are many ways of effective treatment, which can include surgery or laser treatment that heats the effected area and seals the vein. Often compression tights are worn up to 14 days after treatment. Once varicose veins have been removed others take get into action. Symptoms vary from pain free itchy or painful or ulceration of the leg.

The above information is a general guide. Always seek expert medical advice

VENA CAVA – This is the large vein, which empties into the right side of the heart.

VERTIGO - Betahistine (Serc) has been used for vertigo (causes dizziness) for about 30 years.

VIAGRA will also open up the tubes around your heart by preventing an enzyme that causes constriction. It is believed that Viagra may be used effectively in the future to prevent a coronary heart attack. Viagra also increases the capillaries and blood flow in the brain. Slidenfil found in Viagra relaxes the arteries so helping increase blood flow.

VO2 MAX is how quickly your lungs swap carbon dioxide for oxygen and how fast oxygenated blood delivers it to the muscles. Improve your VO2 and reduce your time for 1500m swimming 10 mile cycling or 5km running time.

WATER - Recycle of the earth's water from the atmosphere to living cells is known as the water cycle. The complete Water evaporates from Lakes Rivers and seas into tiny droplets of vapor into the air. These droplets form clouds and fall as hail snow or rain. Recycle of the earth's water from the atmosphere to living cells is known as the water cycle. Water evaporates from Lakes Rivers and seas into tiny droplets of vapor into the air. These droplets form clouds and fall as hail snow or rain.

WEIGHT LOSS SURGERY BioEnterics Intragsatric Balloon [BIB] is a type of balloon put into the human stomach then inflated with salt water. To give the individual stomach a more full feeling to reduce the volume of food being eaten. This is a new method and only a temporary measure which is used for up to 12 weeks in conjunction with exercise and healthy foods in moderation.

Other weight loss methods include the gastric band and gastric bypass. A pigment (fucoxanthin) only found in brown kelp seaweed (Undaria pinnatfida ) called Wakame used in Japanese Miso soup has been shown to lose 5-10 percent weight in rats close to the gut with no adverse effects. Fucoxanthin was not found in green and red seaweed. More tests are required before it will be possible to manufacturer large enough doses for humans to use. Drinking gallons of miso soup would not be effective because it is difficult to absorb this pigment.

WHIPLASH can occur in any sudden jolt, (common in car collisions) this is because when a person’s body is thrown forward backward or both you automatically try and over compensate to this sudden jolt.

Often the rebound in the opposite direction can also cause the injury. Your neck muscles aim to put you back into the normal position before you have come to a halt as a result injuring joints ligaments muscles and nerves due to abnormal stretching and tearing, Hyper flexed state occurs when your head is forced forwards while and the back ward force is known as hyperextension.

Vertebrae may be forced out of their natural line. Whiplash is a common car injury even at speeds of lower than 10 miles per hour; you can be hurt even if your vehicle looks fine.

WINTER WEIGHT GAIN is normal as you become less active, a few extra kilos can strengthen your immune system. Fruit and vegetables will fill you up for less calories rather than biscuits and sweets. And dried fruit like apricots.

WHOLEMEAL food can be harder to digest in hotter climates partly because you need more fluid. When it is hot fluid is used more to cool you down by sweating.

WOUNDS to skin have been treated in the past by placing maggots on injured area. Maggots eat only damaged flesh their secretion speeds up the healing maggots produce juices to break down damaged tissue.

X-RAY – Electro-magnetic radiation of short wave lengths able to pass through solid opaque bodies. Photographs made by x-rays.

YAWNING is a natural reaction. It stretches the lungs and allows the bottom part helps to receive oxygen. It is thought that yawning is an evolutionary reflex action so the group all went to bed at the same time.

ZEBU is a cross breed of cattle for its quality of beef.This breed is particularly good at in high temperatures and also parasites found in South America. Brazilian forests have been cut down to rear Zebu. Concerns about hormones being used to increase the size of the animal has been a concern.

Some beef contains an animal called Zebu